Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammatory lung disease that causes obstructed airflow from the lungs, including emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and in some cases asthma. Symptoms include breathing difficulty, cough, mucus production and wheezing. People with COPD are at increased risk of developing heart disease, lung cancer and a variety of other conditions.

Almost 15.7 million Americans (6.4%) reported that they have been diagnosed with COPD. More than 50% of adults with low pulmonary function were not aware that they had COPD. It typically occurs in people over the age of 40. Males and females are affected equally commonly. In 2015, COPD affected about 174.5 million (2.4%) of the global population and resulted in 3.2 million deaths, up from 2.4 million deaths in 1990. 

Respiratory Syncytial Virus

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) affects the lung and airways, and is the most common cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in children under 1 year of age in the United States; RSV is the main cause of hospitalization in this age group. Infants infected with RSV during childhood are thought to be more likely to develop childhood asthma or wheezing. Almost all children are infected with RSV before the age of two. There is no vaccine against RSV, and treatment of active infection in children is supportive only i.e. there is no specific antiviral treatment available. Because the body's immune system does not build up protective immunity against RSV infection, and because there is no vaccine, repeated infection with RSV occurs through childhood and adult life. People with poor immune systems, those aged 65 years or more, and those with chronic lung or airway disease are particularly at risk if they suffer RSV infection.

Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

Pulmonary fibrosis is a form of interstitial lung disease that causes scarring in the lungs with destruction of lung tissue and loss of lung function. There are over 200 different types of pulmonary fibrosis and in most cases, there's no known cause. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is the most common type of pulmonary fibrosis. This condition causes scar tissue (fibrosis) to build up in the lungs, which reduces  the lungs ability to transport oxygen into the bloodstream. The disease usually is usually first diagnosed in  people between the ages of 50 and 70.

The most common signs and symptoms of IPF are shortness of breath and a persistent dry, hacking cough. In people with IPF, scarring of the lungs increases over time until the lungs can no longer provide enough oxygen to the body's organs and tissues. Some people with IPF develop or suffer from other serious lung conditions, including lung cancer, blood clots in the lungs (pulmonary emboli), pneumonia, or high blood pressure in the blood vessels that supply the lungs (pulmonary hypertension). Most affected individuals survive no more than 3 to 5 years after their diagnosis.

In most cases, IPF cases are sporadic and occur in only one person in a family. However, a small percentage of people with IPF have at least one other affected family member, when the condition is known as familial pulmonary fibrosis.

IPF has an estimated prevalence of 13 to 20 per 100,000 people worldwide. About 100,000 people are affected in the United States, and approximately 50,000 new cases are diagnosed each year.



Hepatitis B Virus

Hepatitis B is a disease of the liver. It is caused when the hepatitis B virus (HBV) infects the liver.

Hepatitis B is transmitted when blood, semen, or other body fluids from an infected person enters the body of an uninfected person. This may happen through sexual contact, the sharing of needles, syringes, other drug-injection equipment, or from mother-to-baby transmission during childbirth. HBV causes both acute and chronic infections. The risk of developing chronic infection is related to one’s age at infection: approximately 90% of infected infants become chronically infected, compared with 2%–6% of adults. Chronic Hepatitis B can have serious complications, leading to cirrhosis of the liver, liver cancer, and death.

An estimated 240 million people suffer from chronic hepatitis B, while more than 780 000 people die each year from hepatitis B.